Monday, June 29, 2020

How to Solve Hidden Factor Problems on the GMAT

One of the interesting things to note about newer GMAC Quant questions is that, while many of these questions test our knowledge of multiples and factors, the phrasing of these questions is often more subtle than earlier versions you might have seen. For example, if I ask you to find the least common multiple of 6 and 9, I’m not being terribly artful about what topic I’m testing you on – the word multiple is in the question itself. But if tell you that I have a certain number of cupcakes and, were I so inclined, I could distribute the same number of cupcakes to each of 6 students with none left over or to each of 9 students with none left over, it’s the same concept, but I’m not telegraphing the subject in the same conspicuous manner as the previous question. This kind of recognition comes in handy for questions like this one: All boxes in a certain warehouse were arranged in stacks of 12 boxes each, with no boxes left over. After 60 additional boxes arrived and no boxes were removed, all the boxes in the warehouse were arranged in stacks of 14 boxes each, with no boxes left over. How many boxes were in the warehouse before the 60 additional boxes arrived? (1) There were fewer than 110 boxes in the warehouse  before  the 60 additional arrived. (2) There were fewer than 120 boxes in the warehouse  after  the 60 additional arrived. Initially, we have stacks of 12 boxes with no boxes left over, meaning  we could have 12 boxes or 24 boxes or 36 boxes, etc. This is when you want to recognize that we’re dealing with a multiple/factor question. That first sentence tells you that the number of boxes is a multiple of 12. After 60 more boxes were added, the boxes were arranged in stacks of 14 with none left over  Ã‚  after this change, the number of boxes is a multiple of 14. Because 60 is, itself, a multiple of 12, the new number must remain a multiple of 12, as well. [If we called the old number of boxes 12x, the new number would be 12x + 60. We could then factor out a 12 and call this number 12(x + 5.) This number is clearly a multiple of 12.] Therefore the new number, after 60 boxes are added, is a multiple of both 12 and 14. Now we can find the least common multiple of 12 and 14 to ensure that we don’t miss any possibilities. The prime factorization of 12: 2^2 * 3 The prime factorization of 14: 2 * 7 The least common multiple  of 12 and 14: 2^2 * 3 * 7 = 84. We now know that, after 60 boxes were added, the total number of boxes was a multiple of 84. There could have been 84 boxes or 168 boxes, etc. And before the 60 boxes were added, there could have been 84-60 = 24 boxes or 168-60 = 108 boxes, etc. A brief summary: After 60 boxes were added: 84, 168, 252†¦. Before 60 boxes were added: 24, 108, 192†¦. That feels like a lot of work to do before even glancing at the statements, but now look at how much easier they are to evaluate! Statement 1 tells us that there were fewer than 110 boxes before the 60 boxes were added, meaning there could have been 24 boxes to start (and 84 once 60 were added), or there could have been 108 boxes to start (and 168 once 60 were added). Because there are multiple potential solutions here, Statement 1 alone is not sufficient to answer the question. Statement 2 tells us that there were fewer than 120 boxes after 60 boxes were added. This means  there could have been 84 boxes   that’s the only possibility, as the next number, 168, already exceeds 120. So we know for a fact that there are 84 boxes after 60 were added, and 24 boxes before they were added. Statement 2 alone is sufficient, and the answer is B. Takeaway: questions that look strange or funky are always testing concepts that have been tested in the past – otherwise, the exam wouldn’t be standardized. By making these connections, and recognizing that a verbal clue such as â€Å"none left over† really means that we’re talking about multiples and factors, we can recognize even the most abstract patterns on the toughest of GMAT questions. Plan on taking the GMAT soon? We have  GMAT prep courses  starting all the time. And be sure to follow us on  Facebook,  YouTube,  Google+  and  Twitter! By  David Goldstein,  a Veritas Prep GMAT instructor based in  Boston. You can find more articles written by him  here.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Effects of a Food Taxation on the UKs Budget Deficit Position - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1147 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2018/12/15 Category Food Essay Type Research paper Level High school Tags: Budget Essay Taxation Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Taxation in the United Kingdom can involve payment to the minimum of approximately three different levels of government. A budget deficit is referred as the twelve-monthly amount that the administration has to borrow so as to meet the deficit between the present receipts as well as state expenditure. The government of the United Kingdom need to raise the tax revenue in order to reduce the budget deficit of the country.  Ã‚   In this paper, I will show whether I agree with a politician or not. I disagree with the politician that in United Kingdom, government should place a tax on all food yields since everybody must eat.   This is because it is it is unrealistic that taxation food products like non-alcoholic beverages will automatically the raise the government revenue of UK.   There are several reasons as to why taxation of foods yields will not raise government revenue. One, price elasticity. So as to generate tax revenue to the government, a tax must be applied to foodstuffs which are price inelastic (That is, products whose use lies less compared to proportionately when their cost inelastic) food product price inelastic. This indicates that effects of an increase in cost are hard to affect and may not be estimated thus, food products may not increase tax revenue. Two, effects on the other taxes. Those tax can potentially decrease other types of revenue which are paid by manufacturers, traders as well as merchants of taxed foodstuffs and their related providers and workers. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Effects of a Food Taxation on the UKs Budget Deficit Position" essay for you Create order Three, shopping over a border. The tax could also promote trans-border from buyers attempting in order to avoid the tax decrease. Taxing of food products will offer incentives to food manufacturers so that they may improve the nutritional profile of their own products thus, many people will buy, and hence it will not have effect on overall the government revenue. Four, intrinsic administrative prices. The design, observing as well as implementation of the tax could force significant administrative prices on administration making process to long, complicated as well as cannot be frugally productive as predictable. In addition, taxation of food products may change the way people eat.   Business typically passes substantial percentages of taxes through retail cost (Borrelli, 205.p 225).   Individual eat less food as well as the drink small amount of the targeted product, thus raising the government revenues becomes expensive (Arestis, 2004.p, 74). Also, taxation of food production would be inefficient in raising the government revenues.   Products will not be able to adequately raise the government revenue without putting burdens on the economy too much. I agree with the politician that taxes on food, vegetable, and fruits, will be applied to the grocery stores so that the low-income customers are protected. When food stores incurred a greater taxation they increase the price of food in a regular manner and so they low-income earner can only purchase what they need basically. The introduction of a tax to food especially the food which contributes to poor health is important for the rate to which they are being taken can reduce. The introduction of a tax to grocery stores will reduce the frequency to which unhealthy food contribute to our poor health. The politician suggestion was not positively taken by the people of the United Kingdom but some people agree with him when they see the ?bigger picture. This is because the seller will not allow their business to make a loss. They will distribute the value added tax to the people. This will make the prices of commodities to rise and therefore hard for the easy access to this products. When the tax is applied to sellers unnecessary food manufacturing will increase the cost and their intake will reduce by a great percentage. The reduction of unnecessary food substances, especially unhealthy substances, will reduce, calorie which are taken every day in the United Kingdom every day (Taylor, 2017 p. 2). The groceries industries resist on the tax increase policies is done under responsibility deal which was signed in 2011 by the department of health. The tax applied to the sellers is expected to control the production of food, vegetable, and fruits, and reduce what is being produced unnece ssarily. For the government to collect enough revenue from the sellers, it should in return provide good services so that they can be motivated in paying. The government should create a good environment for the grocers to sell their products and this will ensure them enough profit and therefore they will exploiting the consumers. When the government and the sellers are associating well, taxation can benefit all of them, which include, the seller, the producer, the government and the consumers. Low-income consumers can be protected by the government if it brought back to the consumers what they have taken from the seller in form of a tax (Taylor, 2017 p. 6). Besides groceries, the government of the United Kingdom should focus on taxing soft drinks and other sugar products. Taxing the soft drinks should raise a good revenue for the government. Moreover, this taxation will only affect the profit of the producers and the consumers will not be affected. Although in a way the consumer will be affected, the tax will be distributed evenly to all people. Taxing the soft drinks will also result in a reduction of sugar in the beverage and hence reducing the risk of getting a sugar health problem. The tax that will be collected from the production and distribution of soft drinks and sugar will be used by the government to initiate an anti-obesity initiation (Taylor, 2017 p. 2). On the expenditure budget of the government, it shows that a lot of money is required to support the obese people. Taxing sugar and soft drinks will reduce the level of obesity due to the reduction of sugar in the products as well as raising money to support the people affec ted. Furthermore, the food and beverages companies are not happy about the introduction of taxes on their production. They insist on the voluntary action to be taken. Companies are not willing to support the motion for they are not willing to pay an extra tax for the products they produce. Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that food such as fruits, alcohol and other beverages should not be taxed because of various reasons like price inelasticity thus no government revenue there are other types of foods that can be taxable like soft drinks and sugar. Therefore, taxation of some food products in the UK will increase government revenue, hence dealing with the budget deficit. References Arestis, P. and Sawyer, M., 2004. On fiscal policy and UK budget deficits.  Intervention. Journal   Ã‚     of Economics,  1(2), pp.61-74. Borrelli, S.A. and Royed, T.J., 2005. Government strengthand UK budget deficits in advanced democracies.  European Journal of Political Research,  28(2), pp.225-260. Taylor, R. (2017). Debate: this house believes that the UK population trend in obesity cannot be reversed without food taxation.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Relationship Between Components Of Aggregate...

This report will examine the relationships between components of aggregate expenditure and how fluctuations in those components eventually leads to changes in monetary policy. The recent performances of the Australian economy over the past five years will be examined in order to provide an assessment on where this economy currently is on the business cycle. This will be done through discussing the relevant economic models, such as aggregate demand and aggregate supply. Providing a critical analysis of these models will assist in understanding the establishment of certain policies due to fear of implications. Understanding the relationship between government policies and their effect on the GDP directly influences the business cycle. In order to assess where the Australian economy is in the business cycle, it is necessary to examine to the main expenditure components – household consumption, net investment which includes inventories along with private and public investment, government expenditure, and net exports (Makin, 2010, p. 9). Figure 1 illustrates the growth rate of real GDP of the past five years seasonally adjusted, while figure 2 shows the growth rate segmented into the components that cause GDP growth. There are a number of trends that these graph illustrate, and it is important understand their effect on aggregate demand. Firstly, the biggest contribution to GDP growth appears to be net exports due to not only the depreciating value of the Australian dollar,Show MoreRelatedAs/Ad Model1332 Words   |  6 PagesMacroeconomics – Chapter 10: The Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Model * Keynesian Economics – Economists who focused on the short run * John Maynard Keynes - their leading advocate * the originator of macroeconomics as a separate discipline from micro * Classical Economists – economists who focused on long-run issues such as growth * Aggregate Demand Management – government’s attempt to control the aggregate level of spending in the economy * Equilibrium IncomeRead MoreThe Strategy Of Contractionary Fiscal Policy1194 Words   |  5 Pages Utilizing the income-expenditure approach examine the likely consequences for the UK economy of the government’s attempt to cut its spending and raise taxation. Outline the suggested long-term benefits of such a policy? Where the government reduces government expenditure and raises taxation is known as contractionary fiscal policy. The government uses such policy in order to steer the economy into steady growth by preventing an inflationary gap from occurring. If an economy is growingRead MoreMeasuring Price Sensitivity And The Macroeconomic Environment Essay1625 Words   |  7 Pagesfields, however there are fewer studies detailing the relationships and microeconomic factors between price sensitivity and the macroeconomic environment. This report explored each category listed below, as businesses, in particular, XYZ Company, must use microeconomic principles to make and validate decisions based on the following factors: price elasticity, consumer choices, production and costs, supply and demand, aggregate supply and aggregate demand, and macroeconomic measurements. MicroeconomicRead MoreThe Economic Economy Of Australia1777 Words   |  8 Pagescompared with other countries. In general, GDP growt h has become an important manifestation of the country s comprehensive national strength. In economics, GDP is an important index of a country s economic health. It is important because each component of GDP will represent in daily life. In Australia, GDP growth dependent on its service sector, manufacturing and agriculture, in which the service sector accounted for the highest proportion of total GDP. Moreover, Australia is a country which hasRead MoreCauses Of Unemployment In Australia1149 Words   |  5 PagesAnalyse the causes of unemployment, its effects on the Australian economy and how they are addressed through use of macroeconomic policies. Unemployment refers to when an individual is actively seeking work and is aged 15 years or over, but is unable to find work (not hired). 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The cause of oil prices drop and impacts of the economy due to shift of the AD and will demonstrateRead MoreClassical Theory of Employment5251 Words   |  22 Pagesinvestment  and equality must bring about by flexible interest Rate. * (d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  No intervention of government  in market operations, i.e., a laissez faire economy, and there is no government expenditure, taxation and subsidies. * (e)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Market size is limited by the volume of production and  aggregate demand is equal to aggregate supply. * (f)  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is a  closed economy. Classical theory * Classical macroeconomic theory— a view of the macro economyRead MoreMacroeconomics Gdp5520 Words   |  23 Pagessuch as GDP, unemployment rates, and price indices to understand how the whole economy functions. Macroeconomists develop models that explain the relationship between such factors as national income, output, consumption, unemployment, inflation, savings, investment, international trade and international finance. In contrast, microeconomics is primarily focused on the actions of individual agents, such as firms and consumers, and how their behavior determines prices and quantities in specific marketsRead MoreAudit Risks and Materiality Sample Questions4444 Words   |  18 Pagesrisk. b. The auditor s preliminary evaluation of inherent risk based on discussions with the client. c. The nature of the client’s business. d. The type of report to be issued by the auditor. ANSWER: D 6. How can the audit program best be described at the beginning of the audit process? a. Tentative. b. Conclusive. c. Comprehensive. Read MoreEffectiveness of Fiscal Policy as a Stabilization Tool9769 Words   |  40 PagesResources, Inc. (DRI) quarterly econometric model of the U.S. economy, a benchmark model at the time, they calculated an optimal historical path for the ITC, the path of switching the credit on and off that would have minimized the fluctuations in the gap between actual and potential GDP. Under the unrealistic assumption of no policy lags, their optimal policy was superior not only to actual policy, but also to a constant-rate ITC policy. With policy lags, though, the performance of the optimal

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Juvenile And Adult Convictions Essay - 980 Words

This, along with a lack of treatment, seemingly no outlet for his distress, and trying to maintain a facade would have all played a role in not just the events of that day, but the way they unfolded. The height of feeling worthless, contemplating suicide nearly all day, as well as many days prior to that, was bound to erupt in some illogical release because he has never been treated and/or given the tools to deal with his depressive symptoms or emotional instability. LEGAL ISSUES/CONSIDERATIONS Ms. Wise has the following juvenile adjudications and adult convictions: Juvenile: 2000: Burglary, admission - delinquency Adult: 03CF0812: Flee/Elude Officer, guilty plea; probation 2 years (revoked) 03CF6912: Armed Robbery, Threat of Force, guilty plea; RYOC 5 years Retail Theft, guilty plea; HOC 5 months (concurrent) Deandre’s Statement – Mr. Wise takes full responsibility for his actions. He is remorseful about the harm that came upon the officer who was struck by ricocheted fragments. In the moment, however, Mr. Wise was overcome with anxiety, fear, frustration and desolation. While he did not intend harm anyone but himself that day – he wanted to get away from his feelings of loneliness and rejection and had been contemplating suicide for much of the day – he now understands that his decisions caused harm to others. Further, he understands that his actions have adversely affected his son and his extended family. â€Å"This situation is so heavy, I can’tShow MoreRelatedShould Juveniles Be Charged As Adults?956 Words   |  4 Pages Should Juveniles Be Charged As Adults? Juveniles are being charged as adults more regularly, being housed in adult prisons and the judicial system is using this as a type of reform. 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One way prosecutors can proceed, in trying the juvenile as an adult, is by exercising the 2011 SenateRead MoreJuvenile Justice System Essay1694 Words   |  7 PagesThe juvenile justice system is a foundation in society that is granted certain powers and responsibilities. It faces several different tasks, among the most important is maintaining order and preserving constitutional rights. When a juvenile is arrested and charged with committing a crime there are many different factors that will come in to play during the course of his arrest, trial, conviction, sentencing, and rehabilitation process. This paper examines the Juvenile Justice System’s court processRead MoreJuvenile Justice System1739 Words   |  7 PagesThe juvenile justice system is a foundation in society that is granted certain powers and responsibilities. It faces several different tasks, among the most important is maintaining order and preserving constitutional rights. When a juvenile is arrested and charged with committing a crime there are many different factors that will come in to play during the course of his arrest, trial, conviction, sentencing, and rehabilitation process. This paper examines the Juvenile Justice System’s court processRead MoreRaising The Age1517 Words   |  7 Pagesversus that of adults. During this time, juveniles, some young as seven years old could be tried and prosecuted within an adult criminal court. Children would have to stand for trial in court based on the offenses they committed, and could then be sentenced to prison and sometimes possibly even capital punishment. Is this form of justice beneficial to minors, or does it just obstruct their futures? Children, as young as the age of seven faced many challenges while they were held with adult criminalsRead MoreJuveniles And Prisons1313 Words   |  6 PagesJuveniles and Prison â€Å"I used to believe are our future but now I realize that this, sadly isn’t the reality. Through laws that treat kids like adults, the government is throwing away the future of children in this country.† (D. Lee) An estimated 200,000 juveniles are tried as adults. The term juvenile refers to any young person under the age of 18. For most states in the United States, the age of majority is 18. While there are many things that juveniles are unable to do until they reach the ageRead MoreAutomatic Transfer Law: An Effective Policy? 1218 Words   |  5 Pagesa national study of how the juvenile court judge weighs the pertinent Kent criteria. This criterion is based on the potential risk to the community, the maturity of character and amenability to intervention. The purpose of this study is three fold, first to test the juvenile court judges beliefs regarding the mechanics of how juveniles are transferred, second to examine the judges beliefs about the usefulness of da ta presented of them and third determined how juvenile judges weigh pertinent psychologicalRead MoreYoung Kids, Hard Time1290 Words   |  6 PagesIn the justice system today there are many problems such as juveniles facing jail time as adults. Crime and the fear that it creates is a rising epidemic that is not slowly decreasing in any way. Young Kids, Hard time is a documentary about a correctional facility in Southwestern Indiana that holds 2100 prisoners behind bars for everything from rape to murder. This correctional facility is called home for 53 juveniles sentenced as adults. The documentary Young Kids, Hard Time demonstrates that theseRead MoreCriminal Court : A Look At Prosecutorial Waivers846 Words   |  4 PagesTransfer of Juveniles to Criminal Court: A Look at Prosecutorial Waivers The purpose of this review is to provide an informative summary of the already existing literature that examines prosecutorial waivers within the juvenile justice system and the controversy surrounding its exclusive use by prosecutors. A brief history of how the waiver came about and an overview of the waiver process in its various forms are provided. As well as a study conducted in Michigan pertaining to the use of prosecutorialRead MoreRights of Juveniles1267 Words   |  6 PagesDescribe the Legal rights juveniles have today To protect juveniles from self-incrimination, provisions were made to have the Miranda rights available before being questioned by the police. A 1979 us supreme court ruling found that juveniles should have a waiver and be old enough to understand the consequences of waiving their rights. The Miranda rights also protects juveniles against the unlawful search of their personal property, unless it is to maintain order and safety among other students

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Police Violations And Police Corruption - 843 Words

Michael Carle 4-15-2016 American Studies III Mr Boyd Mrs Whitehead Police Corruption Imagine, you and your friends are driving around listening to music and having a good time, you guys have no drugs or alcohol. A cop pulls you over no reason, probably the loud music, maybe you were speeding, who knows. The cops come up to your vehicle, one of them start talking then he â€Å"smells† something. The officers make everyone get out as they search the car.You think to yourself, we didn t have any drugs, they won t find anything, wrong. The cops somehow find a little pouch of cocaine. Now you and your friends face up to 3 years in jail and $20,000 in fines. This is an example of what we would call Police Corruption. Police Corruption is a form of police misconduct in which police law enforcement break the law for personal or department gain. Police Corruption is a global issue that needs to be solved, cases like the one above can happen anywhere at anytime. In an interview by John Vibes he asked an anonymous police officer fro m Palm Beach County some questions on this topic, he stated â€Å"Mouthy drivers, street lawyers, assholes and just anyone else trying to make my job difficult. Under my floor mat, I keep a small plastic dime baggie with Cocaine residue. The residue is the key because you can fully charge some asshole with possession of cocaine, heroin, or whatever just with the residue†. He was also asked if this was common throughout the department.Show MoreRelatedPolice Misconduct And The Criminal Justice System1039 Words   |  5 PagesPolice unethical operations, imposes high cost on police, the criminal justice system, and society. Criminal activity by a police officer undermines the basic integrity of law enforcement and the grounds which the laws were based on. Regardless if an officer takes a small bribe or is involve in a drug trade, the corruption forever change the relationship between communities and the face of justice. . . Unethical Police Operation When a Police Officer abuses his authority, it is called policeRead MoreEssay on Ethics in Policing824 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation† (Merriam-Webster Online). This concept is prevalent in the world of police work since police officers are supposed to be the â€Å"good† in whatever is considered a â€Å"bad† situation. Many police departments offer training in ethics during the time in which a cadet is in the police academy and after officers are put on the streets, which is called in-service training. It is the hope that while this training is available to officersRead MorePolice Brutality And The Civil Rights Movement1333 Words   |  6 PagesPolice brutality goes back many decades and actually happens a lot less the it did in the 60’s it is just seems like it occurs more due to the development of social media today. During the Civil Rights Movement that began in 1963 African Ame ricans mostly in the South took the majority of these police brutalities. For example In the 60’s blacks were beaten with batons and cattle prods as they attempted to vote at a court house that was in Selma, Alabama. The subjects that received the beatings wereRead MoreIdentifying Potential Problem Officers At A Police Officer1269 Words   |  6 Pages Robbins 1 Jasmine Robbins November 14, 2014 Introduction to Police Examination #2 Question: When recruiting officers, discuss the best way to identify potential problem officers before they are hired. A police officer occupation is one of the most important jobs in the community. Their job consist of keeping the neighborhood safe and protectRead MoreUnethical Police Operations1099 Words   |  5 PagesUnethical Police Operations When a Police Officer abuses his authority, it is called police misconduct. Police misconduct is a broad term used to describe police corruption and police brutality which include violations of state and federal laws, the violation of an individual’s constitutional rights, the abuse of police authority for personal gain, excessive force, false arrest and imprisonment, malicious prosecution, and wrongful death. Police misconduct can often lead to the miscarriage of justiceRead MoreLaw Enforcement : Public Safety1291 Words   |  6 PagesPolice Corruption By: Michael Dunn Law Enforcement 2nd Period Michael Dunn Mr. Manley April 24, 2015 Law Enforcement Public Safety Final The topic of public safety that I chose to research is corruption. Police corruption is a form of police misconduct in which law enforcement officers break their social contract and abuse their power for personal or department gain. Most common form of police corruption is accepting bribes for not interfering with drugRead MorePolice Ethics Essay867 Words   |  4 PagesPolice Ethics Law Enforcement has been around since the beginning of man. The Code of Hammurabi, a book of 282 different codes, which specifically spelled out punishments for crimes, was followed back as early as 1700 B.C. (Geo Quest, Current Events, 00113492, 10/28/2005, Vol. 105, Issue 8) In the Bibles story of Adam and Eve, God cast Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden as a punishment for breaking the rules. (The Holy Bible: Genesis Ch.3) These types of historical records display theRead MoreCorruption of Foreign Governments Essay1214 Words   |  5 PagesCorruption can be defined as the misuse of entrusted power for personal benefit. It can also be described as letting personal or family relationships influence economic decision making, be it by private economic agents or by government officials. Corruption is always kept secret and therefore individual behavior of corrupt agents is almost impossible to observe systematically in real life. The objectives of government are vital to the understanding of the diverse negative effectsRead MoreBecoming An Eligible Police Cadet1575 Words   |  7 Pages Becoming a police officer in today’s society is a great challenge. One must have a clean record, good credit and debit score, decent immediate family, and with many more requirements. When I first went through the application process, I could not understand why so much information was needed about my past. The application consists of education information going back to elementary school. Every immediate family member with dates of birth and home address. All open credit debts with monthly expensesRead MorePolice Corruption968 Words   |  4 Pages(12) election law violations; (13) corruption of public officials; (14) copyright violations; (15) computer crimes; (16) environmental crimes; and (17) receiving stolen property This assignment requires us to write a paper on a form of white-collar crime that we feel is the must dangerous form and why. I f eel the most dangerous form of white-collar crime is police corruption, which is also defined as public corruption. Public or police corruption is defined as; Public corruption involves a breach

Demand and Supply for Money Free Essays

DEMAND AND SUPPLY FOR MONEY – MACROECONOMICS REPORT DEMAND FOR MONEY * What is Demand for Money? The demand for money represents the desire of households and businesses to hold assets in a form that can be easily exchanged for goods and services. Spendability, or liquidity, is the key aspect of money that distinguishes it from other types of assets. For this reason, the demand for money is sometimes called the demand for liquidity. We will write a custom essay sample on Demand and Supply for Money or any similar topic only for you Order Now * Many factors influence our total demand for money balances. The four main factors are 1. the level of prices 2. the level of interest rates . the level of real national output (real GDP) 4. the pace of financial innovation * Three Reasons or Motives for a Large Demand of Money Economists have identified three primary motives for holding money: †¢ To settle transactions, since money is the medium of exchange. †¢ As a precautionary store of liquidity, in the event of unexpected need. †¢ To reduce the riskiness of a portfolio of assets by including some money in the portfolio, since the value of money is very stable compared with that of stocks, bonds, or real estate. * Transaction Motives Money is an essential element in order to have a purchasing power. * This is money used for the purchase of goods and services. The transactions demand for money is positively related to real incomes and inflation. As an individual’s income rises or as prices in the shops incr ease, he will have to hold more cash to carry out his everyday transactions. The quantity of nominal money demand is therefore proportional to the price level in the economy. * The  transactions motive  for demanding money arises from the fact that most transactions involve an exchange of money. Because it is necessary to have money available for transactions, money will be demanded. The total number of transactions made in an economy tends to increase over time as income rises. Hence, as income or GDP rises, the  transactions demand  for money also rises. * The transactions motive for money demand results from the need for liquidity for day-to-day transactions in the near future. This need arises when income is received only occasionally (say once per month) in discrete amounts but expenditures occur continuously. Example: Households and firms hold money or demand money in order to conduct regular payments of goods and services they purchase from the market. * The households and firms hold money to pay for daily expenses such as food, clothing, transportation, and rentals. * In other words, people hold money for transactions purposes – hence the motive is for transaction. * Precautionary Motive * This is money held to cover unexpected  items of expenditure. As with the transactions demand for money, it is positively correlated with real incomes and inflation. People often demand money as a  precaution  against an uncertain future. Unexpected expenses, such as medical or car repair bills, often require  immediate payment. The need to have money available in such situations is referred to as the  precautionary motive  for demanding money * People need to be financially secure in the future, especially in financing or paying for unforeseen events. * Example: Money is used for emergency expenses such as hospitalization, accidents, contingency funds for unidentified household or business expenses. * Speculative Motives This is money not held for transaction purposes but in place of other financial assets, usually because they are expected to fall in price. * People want to earn the highest possible income from their different investments. Hence, they hold money to invest into assets or business prospects that have a promising steady flow of returns or income. * It depends on the decisions of households and firms to hold other assets that are liquid and free risks of depreciation in terms of money. * People hold money to make profits or avoid possible losses when the opportunity in the financial market comes. Example: If the bank interest rate is low, the amount of money held for speculative purposes is higher while it is lower if the interest rate is high since the interest rate is the ‘opportunity cost’ of holding cash. QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY (QTM) It states that the level of prices in the economy is dependent on the amount or level of money circulating in the economy. * The level of prices in the economy is basically the inflation rate. It is the rate at which prices are increasing. * Inflation – refers to the increase in the general level of prices and therefore is the result of too much money circulating in the economy. What would happen if there is an increase in the supply of or too much money circulating in the economy? * There is a possibility that every actor in the economy has so much money and it is natural for them to purchase goods or even services in the economy. An increase in the demand of goods and services without accompanying increase in the available supply will cause the equilibrium price in the economy increase. This premise can be clearly explained if we discuss the quantity theory of money. The Quantity Theory of Money can be expressed by the equation: MV=PY Where: M= quantity of money or money supply V= velocity of money P= price level Y= aggregate output * PY can be interpreted as the market value of output of the economy or the national income or the GNP. * PY refers to the total income or expenditure for the economy’s final goods. Since it is the value of all final goods and services produced in the economy. It is simply regarded as the nation’s GDP. * From the given equation, velocity of money or V can be expressed as the ration of GNP and money supply. Let us take a look at this equation: V=PYM= GNPM For instance, GNP is equal to P300 B while the amount of money supply in the economy is P50 B then the velocity of money is equal to 6. V= GNPM= 30050=6 * This means that a peso was used six times that year to purchase goods and services. * It also being interpreted as the speed of money per year in the circulation. * The QTM assumes that the velocity of money (V) and aggregate output (Y) are fixed, or at least for simpli city purposes, we assume that these factors do not change (or do not change much) MV=PY As a result of the assumptions we made, changes in prices level (or the inflation level in the economy) is directly proportional to changes in money supply * It means that a percentage increase in the money supply will cause an equal percentage increase in the price level or will lead to inflation. THE COMPONENTS OF THE MONETARY STOCK There is a wide range of financial assets in any economy. * Money in the economy is not confined to be circulating paper, bills and coins and the reserved money in the vaults of banks. * Money has many forms which comprises the monetary stock or the money supply in the economy. However, the question is, which part of these is called as or being considered as money? * The following table shows the classification of the monetary stock or the money supply. Definition of Money| Components| M1| Currency + Checking Deposits + traveler’s Check + other checkable deposits such as NOW and ATS| M2| M1 + Savings and Small Denomination Time Deposits + Money – Market Mutual Funds| M3| M2 + Large Denomination time Deposits + Repurchase Agreements| L| M3 + liquid assets such as securities (i. e. Treasury Bills), Bankers? Acceptances, Commercial Paper| M1 comprises claims that are liquid. This refers to claims that can be used directly, instantly, and without restrictions to make payments. It consists of items used as medium of exchange. * M2 includes in addition, claims that are not instantly liquid, those that may require notice to depository institution or banks. * M3 includes items that are held primarily by large corporations and wealthy individuals. * L consists of several liquid assets that are close substitutes for money. MAIN FEATURES OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE MONETARY STOCK Liquid Low interest earnings Less Liquid High interest earnings It should be noted that from M1 to L, the monetary stock is becoming liquid. M1 is directly used for transactions and L is less liquid and cannot be directly used for transactions purposes. * However, the trade-off is that if the individual hold more M1 than L, the individual is forgoing potential interest earnings from L. the L is being offered at a higher interest rate as compared to the M1. * In general, if you hold more M1, you are very liquid yet you earn little. On the other hand, if you hold more L, you find it very difficult to conduct day-to-day transactions yet you are earning much. Basic Concepts in Definitions * Currency * It refers to coins and bills (paper money) in circulation. * Checking Deposits * Accounts that grant a depositor the right to write checks to individuals, firms, or the government. This component is used in order to avoid carrying large amount of money. * This particular component can be considered as money because checks are accepted as for of payments or exchange. * Traveler? s Check * It includes checks issued by non-banks such as American Express 8checks issued by banks are not checking deposits). It is usually used by travelers and tourists, since personal checks are not acceptable in other territories. Therefore, traveler? s check is generally accepted as payment in different territories. Negotiable Order of Withdrawals * A check is invented by thrift institutions as a way getting around the prohibitions of having checking accounts. It is almost same function as travelers check. * Automatic Transfers from Savings Accounts (ATS) * When deposit holders keep money in savings account, the bank automatically transfers from the savings account to the checking account when payment has to be made. This method is usually for bank to bank or institutional transactions. All commercial banks offer this service where savings account can be transferred to other forms of financial assets such as checks or current account (e. g. Land Bank ATS and Metro Bank ATS) * Savings Deposits * Deposits at banks that are not transferable by checks and are often recorded in a separate passbook or ATM (Automated Teller Machine) card kept by the depositor. * Time Deposits * These are the accounts in a bank which require certain maturity date. * Money Market Mutual Funds Interest-earning checkable deposits in financial intermediaries that raise funds by selling shares to individual savers and invest in short-term assets. In addition, these are built-in in all commercial banks such as the BPI Mutual Funds and PNB Mutual Funds * Repurchase Agreements * These are transactions in which bank borrows from a non-bank customer * The bank sells a security today and promise to buy it back at a fixed price tomo rrow (that is why it is repurchase) * In that way, the bank gets to use the amount borrowed for a day * Liquid Assets These are assets that can be easily converted into cash such as stocks, cash on hand, cash in banks and accounts receivable- * Treasury Bills * Securities that are issued by the government that have certain maturity date. For instance, the Philippine Government treasury bills (such as the Centennial Treasury Bills). * Banker? s Acceptance * These are orders to pay specific amount at a specific time. This concept usually arises from future date and guaranteed by a bank that stamps it as accepted. * Commercial Paper * It refers to a liquid short term debt instrument issued by private corporations. How to cite Demand and Supply for Money, Papers

Dickens emotions Essay Example For Students

Dickens emotions Essay Thomas Gradgrind talks to Sissy about her fathers profession and he assumes that he works at stables but he is a member of the circus. Gradgrind assumes Sissy knows the definition of a horse and asks Sissy now girl number twenty your definition of a horse, he refers to the children as numbers as if they were inanimate objects that had no significance to him whatsoever. Of course Sissy does not know what quadruped means or how many toes it has, she just knows that that they are fun creatures. Dickens approves of this because Sissy again shows emotions she curtseyed again, showing that Sissy is s a very respectful girl that is emotional as well. Also it says blushed deeper; Sissy is continuously showing her emotions. Again Thomas Gradgrind has juxtaposed Sissy and Bitzer to show what is expected of Sissy, that she should become a model pupil or else. Dickens does not approve of this and he uses the devices of commenting on Sissys emotions to do so. Gradgrind asks Bitzer the definition of a horse. Bitzer splurts out facts and figures but Dickens emphasise that he does not have experience. He says things like Quadruped gramnivorous, words that children do not even know. Dickens believes that children should have knowledge from experience. Another character is introduced at the end of chapter three, Mr.MChoakumchild. Again Dickens has used a name to emphasise how evil the system is and how wrong, it is using metaphors of what is happening to the children. A man called J.M MCulloch had views like Mr.MChoakumchild. MCulloch believed that the success of education was based on enriching the mind with the knowledge of useful and interesting facts, the grinding down of children to mere vessels. The part of the name Choakumchild suggest that the children are being choked of emotions and their imaginations. This stifles their growth. They cannot breath, the system is choking them. Dickens uses this device to show that the system is wrong and they are stopping children from growing and that the children are dead inside. he and some one hundred and forty, Mr MChoakumchilds own education is described and other teachers have been dragged through the same system so they believe that it is right because it was their life. This also stresses the fact that the teachers are not individual. His training as a schoolmaster has been corrupted by utilitarianism so they do not realise. The consequences of this kind of teaching is that the world would run like a large machine and no individuality would or could be found, emotions would not exist. Dickens uses these devices to show that the system should be stopped, he is trying to open the eyes of the readers to the dangers and failure of such a philosophy.  At the end of chapter two Dickens gives a warning, he says rather overdone Mr MChoakumchild referring to him learning to many insignificant values, he had learnt many subjects but no values of life like friendship and emotion the exact way of life Dickens wants to attack. He then says how infinitely better he might have taught much more, Dickens is referring to values like friendship, emotion and creativity. Mr.MChoakumchild will never be able to teach these values because he knows nothing of them. In chapter three Dickens presents Gradgrinds children and their home. Gradgrind has many children but two are focused on in this, Tom and Louisa. Tom and Louisa have been brought up on the Gradgrind Philosophy. At first it says the young Gradgrinds were all modellike little hares; hailed like animals. The Children are like Bitzer, the model pupils and the best. Their childhood was corrupt because of this which they had remembrance was a large blackboard with a dry ogre chalking ghastly figures on it; the ogre was Thomas Gradgrind and they should have memories of toys and games not education. Dickens uses this device to show that children should be brought up with toys not black boards. .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 , .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .postImageUrl , .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 , .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:hover , .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:visited , .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:active { border:0!important; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:active , .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1 .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u357007ad1c4504fb72de8ed6e3314ed1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: An Investigation of significance of the chorus and nurse, in portraying cultural values, in ‘Medea’ by Euripides EssayThomas Gradgrind shows his belief in facts by saying Ogre. Fact forbid, this shows that the children should not be so ludicrous. no little Gradgrind had ever learnt a silly little jingle; the childrens childhood had been stripped down to fact and no fun, as a writer Dickens believes that imagination and entertainment are deeply important and this shows a lack of it. Dickens continues the repetition of no little Gradgrind to emphasise how strict Thomas Gradgrinds rules are and how wrong they are. Dickens then moves on to describe the Gradgrinds home-Stone Lodge. The Stone part emphasises the strength of the families beliefs A great square house, with a heavy portico darkening the principal windows as its masters heavy brows overshadowed his eyes, compares the house to Gradgrind himself with the device of repeating square and use of strong adjectives such as great and also a calculated, cast up, balanced and proved house again links to Gradgrind and his belief in calculations and being balanced. Then Dickens uses the device of ironically writing everything that the heart could desire, desire is an emotion of which Thomas Gradgrind does not believe in so the device of saying no matter how hard he tries to block emotions out they still get in, showing that the Gradgrind Philosophy and utilitarianism is ineffective. Finally Dickens writes the little Gradgrinds had cabinets in various departments of science too, children want toys not chemicals and education at an early stage. However, Gradgrind is described as an affectionate father, although he tortures his children with removing emotions. Gradgrind believes that this is how a father treats his children, he is not aiming to treat his children badly he just does because he thinks that it is right. Gradgrind thinks he is helping them. Dickens uses this device to show that he wants to open utilitarians eyes to show them that what they are doing is wrong and dangerous. In the final part of chapter three the circus comes to town, of course Gradgrind hates this because it is fun and emotional, it goes against everything he believes. Dickens thinks the circus is wonderful because it is an expression of human nature. Tom and Louisa are desperate to get a glimpse of the circus it says Louisa peeping with all her might; this shows that Louisa is desperate for emotions and just to get a glimpse of the fun and laughter and Thomas abasing himself on the ground to catch but a hoof, is desperate for the tiniest glimpse, just like Louisa. All emotions have been sucked out of their life and this situation is like telling a child not to do something because they have an overwhelming urge to do it anyway!Then comes a yelping from the crowd Louisa! Thomas! showing an extremely angered Gradgrind. The children Both rose, red shows their embarrassment and their emotion, Dickens uses this device to show no matter how hard Thomas Gradgrind tries emotions cannot be lost. Thomas behaviour shows that he gives up easily and is weak, more passive. He is sub-missive. He is like a machine, the simile showing he has no emotion he just turns off and obeys whereas Louisa is slightly more rebellious she looked at her father with more boldness; this shows that Louisa is a bold and strong person. She has a rebellious personality and her individuality has been left in a perverted state. Her emotions have not yet been extinguished; embers are left dying, not with brightness natural to cheerful youth. Louisa then goes on to say she is tired, the system is draining her and wearing her out. Thomas Gradgrind cannot understand the failure of his system Tired? Of what? Dickens uses this device to show that his system is incorrect and emotions are necessary but that Gradgrind cannot yet see this. .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f , .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .postImageUrl , .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f , .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:hover , .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:visited , .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:active { border:0!important; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:active , .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub3f9f851630ed2dad7645a59093c0a5f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: An Inspector Calls a Review EssayIn conclusion, I have gathered the impression that utilitarianism was a great part of Victorian society but that does not make it right. It was a corrupt schooling system and was perverted. Dickens uses a variety of devices to share the folly in the novel, but I think that the juxtaposition between Sissy and Bitzer was important and the metaphors and similes emphasised the inadequacies of the system. I think that the Gradgrind Philosophy and utilitarianism had a lot of effect on the next generation because it did not continue it just emphasised the mistake that was made by Jeremy Bentham. If Dickens had not written this novel then we might have still lived in a corrupt environment with clones and no emotion.